Private trees

A permit (free) is required to cut down a tree.

Before ordering work on your trees, check the liability insurance of the company that will carry it out and ask for references. You can find certified contractors through the SIAQ at the following website : www.siaq.org


Trees and neighbourliness

Trees are considered immovable property under civil law. Therefore, a tree belongs to the owner of the property on which it stands. On the other hand, a tree is also an integral part of the community landscape. If a tree is a serious nuisance to a neighbour, the owner may be required to remedy the situation. Serious nuisance refers to a real and relatively significant problem.

For example, a large dead branch overhanging the neighbour’s house could damage the roof of that home. On the other hand, leaves or fruit falling from a tree into the neighbour’s pool may be annoying, but are not considered serious. The reason is that a pool requires regular maintenance and its owner can remedy the situation by installing a protective cover.

According to the Québec Civil Code, no one can take justice into his own hands. You cannot cut down, in whole or in part, a tree that is not on your property. It is recommended that you speak with the neighbour involved in order to settle the problem. Should discussion be difficult or even impossible however, "Mesures alternatives des Basses-Laurentides" provides a mediation service that could be of help.

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In the case of ice, should you intervene on trees?

In fact, a tree’s resistance to ice varies considerably from one variety to another, as well as one tree to the next. Certain characteristics can make a tree more vulnerable (ex: weak junctions between branches, bark included, cankers, existing injuries, etc.). The build-up of ice or wet snow combined with high winds can cause considerable damage, which can sometimes be prevented with good maintenance. You should know, however, that once the ice has taken, shaking the branches to try to dislodge it could be highly damageable to the bark and buds. Frozen trees are highly fragile and it is preferable to wait for them to thaw before repairing the damage. It’s better to let nature do its job!

Still, if you must plant a new tree, you would do well to choose a variety that better withstands harsh weather conditions, like the bur oak, the ginkgo biloba, deerberry, white spruce, Norway spruce, blue spruce, bitternut hickory, crab apple, black walnut, American hophornbeam, balsam fir, etc. These trees have stronger branches or flexible side branches that better resist the ice. Pay special attention as well to the variety’s vulnerability to pests and environmental stresses. The Town’s website provides several pieces of information on this subject, to help you when the time comes to choose. Check it out!


Why inspect trees in winter?

In summer, leaves conceal defects on the branches or trunk that could affect the tree’s strength or structure. This makes winter the ideal period for examining it closely, especially if:

  • you have seen animals nest in a cavity in the trunk or on a branch (like a family of raccoons)
  • your tree suffered significant breakage in previous years (large branches broken off)
  • you regularly find pieces of bark or wood on the ground
  • you have seen woodpecker holes
  • mushrooms (other than lichens) appear sporadically on the trunk.

Do not hesitate to call on the services of a expert if you feel that the tree could present a danger or requires preventive pruning.

Info: Public Works
450 621-3500, ext. 3300




Choosing a tree species and its location

Trees are an invaluable source of greenery in an urban environment, where they help purify polluted air. Planted on your property, they can:

  • Beautify your property (increase its value)
  • Provide shade to keep your house cool in summer (deciduous trees planted to the south, southeast and southwest)
  • Block cold winds in winter (conifers planted to the north, northeast and northwest)
  • Provide privacy in the yard
  • Prevent erosion

Questions to ask in order to choose the right tree:

  • What is the maximum size of the tree?
  • What clearance is required from overhead power lines?
  • Is the tree suited to the climate?
  • What is its hardiness zone?
  • Will it harmonize with your landscaping?
  • Are moisture, light and soil conditions suitable?
  • Will roots have enough space to develop properly?
  • What shade will it give the house, the terrace, the pool?
  • Will it produce fruit that will be a nuisance to you?
  • Is it capable of withstanding drought, temporary flooding, deicing salts, pollution and pests?
  • Will it require considerable maintenance?

If you make an enlightened choice, you will be more satisfied with the result.

When planting a tree purchased from a nursery (and therefore of a good size), ensure that you have identified the location of underground infrastructures before digging (pipes, cables, grounding grid, irrigation system, etc.)

For additional information, see The Importance of Choosing the Right Tree or Shrub on Hydro-Québec’s website

Protecting the trees

When carrying out landscaping work or putting up a new building, we tend to forget that the trees, which appear so strong and permanent, are sensitive to this type of upheaval.

Before raising or lowering the level of the ground on your property, particularly if there are trees in the vicinity, you should contact the Town’s Urban Planning Department for the required permits.

When the level of the ground must be lowered, you must take into account the factThathat 70% of a tree’s rootsystem is located within 30 centimetres from the surface. Since a significant loss of thetree’s roots could leadto its death, you must either build a retaining wall at the periphery ofthe branches or gradually lower the ground level to create a mound. Since lowering the level of the ground will reduce the amount of water accessible to the tree, you must also water it well during its adaptation period.

Backfilling work can be carried out at any time during the landscaping of the property, but special care must be taken close to trees, since raising the ground level by as little as 15 cm (6 inches) can be harmful to them. In fact, trees are highly sensitive to this type of disturbance, since the addition of soil over the lateral roots can prevent them from breathing while soil around the trunk can lead to rotting.

Depending on the species, the tree may survive a few more years before deteriorating, but by then, it would be too late. A few precautions taken when the backfilling work is being carried out can help the tree adapt to its new situation. The sketch shown here, taken from Aménagement payasagiste, a guide published by the Department of Public Works, presents the simple precautions you can take. First, when raising the level of the ground, install 4-inch agricultural drains at the ground’s current level, laying them out like the spokes of a wheel, with the trunk as its centre. Then add coarse gravel to let in air. To further increase the tree’s chances for survival, connect the horizontal drains to vertical drains. These precautions must be taken on the ground, at the same width as the top of the tree. Take care as well to clear the trunk up to the previous ground level, within a radius of 30 cm to 2 metres from the tree. The construction of a stone wall around this zone will keep the new earth from falling into the hole.

During construction work, heavy equipment can run close to your trees and risk damaging them. Indeed, the weight of this heavy machinery on the roots can be deadly. Knowing that roots extend beyond the top of the tree in circumference, you must be doubly careful and install temporary fences to protect the trees. Construction materials (including excavated soil) must be stored outside the perimeter marked off the by temporary fence.

Another frequent cause of tree mortality in an urban environment: the infamous lawnmower! Often, young trees whose bark has been scraped by the mower will last a few years, but will not improve. Depending on the seriousness of the injuries, the trees will survive a few months or a few years. These injuries open the door to pests and pathogens. To avoid this type of situation, simply remove a fair-size section of lawn around the tree and replace it with mulch. This will keep the lawnmower far enough from the trunk to avoid damaging it.

Maintenance

If you use a contractor to care for your trees (pruning, thinning), take the time to check his references if you don’t know him, and ensure that he has adequate public liability insurance coverage. In fact, accidents can occur during topping or felling operations, causing heavy damage not only to your property, but to your neighbour’s as well.

You should also get estimates from three contractors to compare prices and, once you’ve made your choice, demand a well-written contract.

Should you decide to handle maintenance on your own, remember that topping a tree is strictly prohibited. During pruning operations, it is important not to remove more than 20% of the branches at a time, and the work must be done by the book.

Refer to the BNQ NQ 0605-200 standard on tree maintenance

Dutch elm disease

In North America, Dutch elm disease has decimated a large number of elms over the past century. Caused by a fungus and spread from tree to tree by an insect (bark beetle), it is a devastating disease that was introduced on our continent in the early 20th century. Though difficult to control, it is easy to diagnose. If, for instance, the leaves of an elm tree start to wilt and fall off in summer, chances are that it been infected.

To halt the spread of the disease and spare as many trees as possible in the region, certain rules should be followed:

  • You must act as soon as symptoms appear! Quickly cut down a dead elm or the part of thee tree that has been attacked, taking care to disinfect your tools well afterwards. Remember, however, that in Rosemère, before cutting down a tree, you must first obtain a permit issued by the Public Works Department.

  • Quickly burn the wood from the tree in an outdoor fireplace, to avoid spreading the disease to neighbouring trees.

  • Never bring the wood from the tree to the cottage or elsewhere, as you could spread the disease to this new location.

Info:

Gall mites (maple, linden, elm, etc.)

The damage that gall mites (maple spindle gall, bladder gall, red pile) inflict on trees is most often noticed inn the spring. These acarids prick the leaf and suck out the sap, leading to abnormal growth followed by a malformation (scab). The good news is, it presents no danger to the tree. As this insect is of minor importance, resorting to pesticides, low-impact or other, is not justified.

Info:

Ash anthracnose (ash tree, oak, maple, etc.)

This fungal disease appears in the spring when the weather is cool and humid. Trees then lose part of their leaves in a very short period of time, in May or June, which may appear worrisome. This disease attacks the leaves, twigs and branches and is spread by the wind. In the spring, after budding, translucent brownish spots appear on the new shoots, which then shrivel up and fall. As the impact of this disease is generally only aesthetic, no low-impact products, pesticides or other form of treatment, are required. On the other hand, a young tree that has been seriously attacked can be more sensitive to this fungus when already stressed by other environmental factors, for example, by soil that is inadequate for its growth. It may then be useful to look at other factors contributing to the disease

Info:

Apple scab (apple, crabapple, and pear trees)

Apple scab is a fungal disease that attacks mainly apple, crabapple and pear trees. It spreads in the spring, as soon as leaves appear, when temperature ranges from  15 to 20ºC and humidity is quite high. It is spread mainly by dead leaves and vegetation debris from the previous season. The best way to keep it from spreading, therefore, is to pick up all the fallen leaves and fruits in the fall. A particularly rainy spring can cause a significant loss of leaves. There is no need to worry, however, since this will not kill the tree. Fruits attacked by the apple scab are edible, but much less appetizing.

Some tree varieties are much more resistant, and it is important to take this into account when purchasing a decorative crabapple tree, for instance.

A treatment with liquid lime sulphur purchased from a nursery can help prevent the disease if applied early in the spring.

Note as well that, to some extent, dormant oil applied in April can help prevent apple maggots, an insect that makes the fruit inedible. Speak to the consultant at your nursery.

Info:

Bronze birch borer

In recent years, many birch trees have been killed by the bronze birch borer. This tiny beetle lays its eggs under the bark, where the larvae then develop. These dig tunnels, which little by little keep the sap from flowing to the top off the tree. The first signs of this insect’s presence are bumps or grouting in the bark, D-shaped holes, and an increasingly sparse crown. Most often, branches start dying from the top down until eventually, an entire section is killed. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment against this pest.

agrile bouleau 2

Cutting down the tree remains the ultimate solution, and this should be done as quickly as possible to keep the insects from spreading to neighbouring birch trees. As a rule, birch trees do not adapt well too heavy, compact soil, and are easily stressed in residential areas, making them even more vulnerable to disease. To prevent the premature death of these trees, keep grass from growing under them, since the lawnmower could damage superficial roots. You should also refrain from using chemical fertilizers. Compost is much more suitable. Water during dry periods and keep pruning wounds to a minimum. If you still insist on planting a birch tree, choose one of the more resistant varieties (ex.: Betula nigra Heritage).

Info:

Tar spot (maple tree)

Tar spots are a leaf disease caused by fungi (rhytisma acerinum, rhytisma punctatum) that attack maple trees (sugar and red maples, but mostly silver and Norway maples). In recent years, it has become increasinglywidespread in our region. It is rarely dangerous to the trees, even though the leaves affected by tar spots fall prematurely. Since this is a disease of minor importance, it can be controlled by bagging the affected leaves in clear or orange bags in the fall for green waste pick-ups. This will keep the disease from spreading as quickly the following spring. If the leaves on your trees don’t have black spots, you can shred them and leave them on the ground where they will serve as a natural fertilizer enriching your lawn!

Info:

Eastern tent caterpillar (cherry tree, apple tree, poplar)

Measuring 5 cm in length, the tent caterpillar has white, brown and blue stripes and devours the leaves of different types of plants, including those of several trees. Its eggs hatch in June, inside a nest.

Ideally, with the exception of small trees, the best approach is too simply cut off the infested branch. As well, an application of dormant oil in April will act on the eggs. When purchasing this type of product, ask the consultant at the nursery for advice.

The use of the BTK biological insecticide, available from nurseries and some big-box stores, can also prove to be quite effective. BTK will kill the caterpillar in a minimum of 3 to 5 days. Ensure that the product has been stored at a temperature of 5 to 34ºC and check its expiry date!

Spider mite (opposite photo: on a cedar hedge)

The spider mite is an acarid belonging to the spider family (arachnids). It stabs and sucks the sap from several plants, including cedars. When your cedar hedges take on a silvery colour in late July, it is often too late, as the most devastating damage has already been done. On the other hand, there are things you can do to help prevent an infestation of spider mites:

  • Avoid over-fertilizing with products high in nitrogen, which can stimulate the growth of tender shoots, which are favoured by the mites.

  • Avoid over-trimming the cedars, particularly after mid-June, when the temperature is warm and spider mites reproduce quickly. In this instance, it would be preferable to wait until late August to late September when temperatures are cooler.

  • Increase moisture close to the cedars by installing a drip irrigation system. An increase in humidity of just 10% will keep many of the eggs from hatching, making the job that much easier for natural predators.

You can also fight spider mites by applying certain low-impact products sold in nurseries or garden centres. June is best time for treating cedars attacked the previous year and reducing the population of insects to a manageable level. End-All also kills spider mites at the egg stage.

Should you wish to use a low-impact insecticide, you should do so in the evening, when the insects are in diapause and the UV rays are weaker, since these products are photodegradable.

Fire blight in rosacea (apple trees, crabapple trees, mountain ash, cherry trees, etc.)

This bacterial burn is a devastating disease affecting various species of trees and shrubs in the rosacea family. Caused primarily by the erwinia bacteria, it is extremely difficult to control and there is no effective treatment. Affected trees have symptoms that resemble fire burns, hence the name "fire blight". Initially, wilted leaves remain on the tree, and slowly, the disease moves to other branches. You can prune the affected branches to extend the lifespan of the tree, but you must carefully disinfect your pruning tools afterwards, to avoid spreading the disease.

Lilac bacterial blight (common lilac, ivory silk Japanese tree lilac, etc.)

While the symptoms are almost identical to those of the fire blight, the lilac bacterial blight is caused by a different bacteria, pseudomonas syringae, but it is every bit as devastating and difficult too control.

The great popularity of the ivory silk Japanese tree lilac may have contributed to the spread of this disease. Be that as it may, if you are still intent on planting this variety, buy a strong, symptom-free tree and ask for a guarantee.

 

Black knot (cherry tree, plum tree)

The black knot is caused by a fungus that is easily recognized by the black growths that form around the tree branches. This disease generallybegins by attacking the tips of the branches, working its way towards the trunk and creating crevasses and gum. The affected branches will die. These should actually be cut as s soon as knots appear and, most importantly, before winter, to avoid contamination of the entire tree. If you have trees from the plum family, you can help prevent this disease by preserving their strength with proper fertilization and watering. You should also avoid planting these trees in water-saturated or poorly drained soil.

Unfortunately, if you detect the presence of black knots, the only thing to do is cut the infected branches 10 cm beyond the affected area. You should also disinfect your tools and avoid composting the debris. When a tree has been seriously attacked (see Prunus Schuberton the photo shown here), you would do well to cut it down, after obtaining a permit from the Public Works Department. For information on certain products, we invite you to contact the Town’s eco-consultant. Since some cherry and plum trees are particularly vulnerable to black knot, you would be well advised to ask your nurseryman for information before you buy.

Info:

Emerald Ash Borer (ash)

See the information document on the emerald ash borer available on the Town of Rosemère’s website.

Replacing a tree

When replacing a dead tree, it is advisable to consider the available space (with regards to the size of the tree at maturity), lighting and soil conditions. If possible, favour native species rather than ornamental varieties. You will benefit from their attractive fall foliage and their hardiness.

Other useful references:

  • Hydro-Québec, 2005. Guide to ornamental trees and shrubs. 547 pages. Available from the library or call 1 800 Énergie.
  • Farrar, John Laird, 1995. Trees in Canada. Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 502 pages
  • Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation Website
  • Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 2004. Landscape Guide for Canadian Homes. CCMHC. 190 pages.

While you may opt for a tree variety that is less vulnerable to pests and disease, you should be aware that new threats could arise at any time. Like us, trees are dealing with climate change and the resulting increase in periods of extreme weather. When you plant a tree in the wrong location, it becomes stressed and, by the same token, more vulnerable to disease and insects. The key to success is diversity. By selecting a variety of species, you will avoid "putting all your eggs in one basket".

Some species of trees are generally recommended for the territory of the Town of Rosemère. Still, it is important for you to select, at the nursery, a fine healthy specimen with a straight, wound-free trunk. The condition of the roots should also be checked: they should not wrap around the interior of the pot or protrude from it excessively.


Common Hackberry

(Celtis occidentalis)

  • Height: 15 m / Width: 8 m
  • Tolerates compacted soil well
  • Relatively rapid growth under sunny conditions
  • Suited to all types of soil
  • Easy to maintain and withstands pollution
  • Lovely greenish-yellow fall foliage

*Attractive replacement for the ash tree


Ginkgo (Maidenhair Tree)

(Ginkgo biloba)

  • Height: 20 m / Width: 8 m
  • No known tree predators
  • Highly decorative foliage
  • Stands straight and narrow, with slow growth, making it suitable where space is restricted
  • Withstands urban pollution
  • Tolerates compacted soil and deicing salts well

It can be seen between the Public Works building and the fire station at 190 Charbonneau Street


Koster Blue Spruce

(Picea pungens ‘Koster’)

  • Height: 15 m / Width: 5 m
  • Withstands urban pollution
  • Withstands compacted soil and drought
  • Tolerates deicing salts
  • Strong blue colour
  • Narrower than the traditional Colorado Spruce

It can be seen at the corner of Grande-Côte and Hertel, next to the bus stop

 

Western Catalpa

(Catalpa speciosa)

  • Height: 15 m / Width: 10 m
  • Spectacular blooms, pleasant fragrance in mid-June
  • Withstands sleet
  • Tolerates compacted soil well
  • Easy to plant
  • Rapid growth
 

Autumn Blaze Maple

(Acer Freemanii)

  • Height: 17 m / Width: 13 m
  • Average growth
  • Outstanding fall colours
  • Highly interesting cross between a silver maple and red maple, this multipurpose variety is suited to different types of soil.
  • Ideal in sunny and partially shaded locations
  • Ideal for large areas

It can be seen along the new Births trail, at the intersection of Montée Lesage and Lefrançois Street (Green Route) or in front of the municipal library

 

Bur Oak

(Quercus macrocarpa)

  • Height: 20 m / Width: 20 m
  • Very sturdy
  • Withstands heavy, compacted soil, as well as temporary flooding and drought
  • Easier to plant in the spring
  • Native to Quebec and suited to our hardiness zone
  • Tree suited to open spaces
  • Slow growth
  • Exceptional longevity

Sugar Maple

(Acer Saccharum)

  • Height: 20 m / Width: 15 m
  • Long lifespan
  • Adapted to the region’s climate
  • Attractive fall colour
  • Slow growth
  • High ornamental value because of its bearing and rounded crown
  • Rich, moist soil

Some smaller varieties are quite interesting:

  • Acer saccharum "Green mountain"
  • Acer saccharum "Legacy"

Scarlet Oak

(Quercus coccinea)

  • Height: 20 m / Width: 15 m
  • Narrow pyramid form becoming rounded
  • High ornamental value
  • Slow growth
  • Few phytosanitary issues
  • More or less pollution resistant
  • Beautiful fall colours
 

Turkish Hazel

(Corylus colurna)

  • Height: 12 m / Width: 4 m
  • Slow growth
  • Hardy species
  • Few phytosanitary issues
  • Requires little maintenance
  • Pollution resistant
 

Amur Maackia

(Maackia amurensis)

  • Height: 8 m / Width: 6 m
  • Slow growth
  • White flowers in July
  • Good weather and pollution resistance
  • Few phytosanitary issues
 

Amur Cork Tree

(Phellodendron amurense)

  • Height: 12 m / Width: 10 m
  • Tree of medium height with a rounded, broad-spreading crown
  • Full sun required
  • Fast-growing hardy tree that adapts well to urban conditions
  • Black fruits in the fall contrasting with its golden yellow foliage
 

Accolade Elm

(Ulmus X Accolade)

  • Height: 23 m / Width: 18 m
  • Vase shape and arching branches
  • Withstands difficult urban or growth conditions (drought, restricted root space, pollution)
  • Withstands Dutch Elm disease
  • Other similar interesting varieties: Ulmus Patriot, Ulmus X "New Horizon"

*Interesting replacement for ash trees

 

Colorado White Fir

(Abies concolor)

  • Height: 15 m / Width: 5 m
  • Average to slow growth
  • Hardy
  • Withstands urban conditions well
  • Low compacting tolerance
 

Eastern Hemlock

(Tsuga canadensis)

  • Height: 20 m / Width: 12 m
  • Moderate growth rate
  • Pyramid shape developing drooping terminal shoots with age
  • Does not tolerate compacting and deicing salt
  • Native Québec species
  • Hardy variety
  • Does not like heavy soil and windy areas
 

Trees requiring a second thought and suggested alternatives

  • White elm: highly vulnerable to Dutch elm disease.
    Suggestion: opt for the "New Harmony" or "Accolade", two cultivars that are more resistant to Dutch elm disease.

  • Russian olive tree: very short lifespan.
    Suggestion: if you are looking for a small decorative tree, the Amur maple, Ohio buckeye and shadbush can be interesting options.

  • Silver maple: vulnerable to tar spots (fungal disease), invasive roots, over-abundant samaras…
    Suggestion: use a Freeman maple (slower growth, most attractive red fall colour). For a well-drained soil that is not overly compacted, you can also opt for a sugar maple, whose fall foliage is also quite bright. The "Legacy" (in clayey soil) or "Green Mountain" cultivars are particularly hardy.

  • Poplar: poplars should generally be avoided in suburban areas, because of their highly invasive roots.
    Suggestion: if your location is very sunny and you would like a fast-growing tree, the Amur cork tree is small, different tree that will not cause you any problems. The common hackberry is also a highly tolerant, fast-­growing tree. If you insist on a poplar, be sure to plant it at least 30 feet from buildings or water and sewer pipes.

  • Schubert chokeberry: like most cherry trees, it is sensitive to black knot, an incurable disease that has become increasingly widespread.
    Suggestion: opt for a shadbush, a small tree that is quite decorative in the fall and whose berries also attract birds. If you absolutely insist on a tree with purple foliage, opt for a "Royal Red" Norway maple.

  • Birch: most birch trees are vulnerable to the bronze birch borer, an insect that has been known to damage a large number of trees, particularly in urban areas.
    Suggestion: replace with another species or a black Heritage birch, which is a much hardier cultivar. Like the birch, the Amur cork tree is a decorative variety, but it better withstands clayey soil.

  • Pine: 2 or 3-needle pines are very vulnerable to different fungal Amur cork tree diseases, partly because they are highly stressed in urban areas where the soil is not always adequate for their needs and they are more likely to suffer from drought, to which they are particularly sensitive.
    Suggestion: the larch tree is a softwood tree well suited to our climate. It grows quickly and has a lovely fall colour. On the other hand, it loses its needles in winter! If you still prefer a pine tree, opt for a 5-needle white pine, which is much less sensitive to disease.

  • Ash tree: the ash tree has long been the variety of choice in urban settings, given its different qualities (adaptability, rapid growth, fall colours etc.), but the introduction of the emerald ash borer, an unusual exotic pest, now requires us to review this option.
    Suggestion: the common hackberry could replace the ash tree, since it adapts well to various urban conditions. The Kentucky coffeetree also effectively withstands pollution, sleet and disease. With foliage similar to that of the honey locust, this is a highly ornamental tree.

  • Magnolia: magnolias are increasingly susceptible to the mealybug, an insect that is dangerous and hard to eliminate.

  • Ivory Silk Japanese Lilac: A small tree that has been quite popular in recent years, it is unfortunately sensitive to fire blight, a disease that has a significant negative impact on its appearance.

Before digging!

Contact Info-Excavation. This is a free service for locating underground infrastructures. Location request form available online.

Read "The Importance of choosing the right tree or shrub" on Hydro-Québec’s website

Other useful links:

  • Hydro-Québec, 2005. Guide to Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. Hydro-Québec Distribution. 547 pages. Available in bookstores or by calling 1 800 Énergie.
  • Farrar John Laird, 1995. Trees in Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd., 502 pages.
  • Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation
  • Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 2004. Landscape Guide for Canadian Homes. CMHC. 170 pages. (also available in French under the title: L’aménagement paysager chez soi : Guide canadien)


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